The significant accounting policies used in the preparation of the financial statements are set out below. These policies have been consistently applied to all financial years presented, unless otherwise stated. The company adopted FRS 102 for the first time in the 2015 financial statements.
Basis of preparation
The financial statements have been prepared under the historical cost convention, as modified by the measurement of investment properties and certain financial assets and liabilities at fair value through profit or loss.
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with FRS 102 requires the use of certain key assumptions concerning the future, and other key sources of estimation uncertainty at the reporting date. It also requires the Directors to exercise its judgement in the process of applying the company’s accounting policies. The areas involving a higher degree of judgement or areas where assumptions and estimates have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year are disclosed in note 3.
After making enquiries, the Directors have a reasonable expectation that the Company has adequate resources to continue in operational existence for the foreseeable future. The Company therefore continues to adopt the going concern basis in preparing its financial statements.
Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable and represents the amount receivable for services rendered, net of returns, discounts and rebates allowed by the Company and value added taxes.
The Company recognises revenue when the amount of revenue and costs can be measured reliably; it is probable that future benefits will flow to the entity and when the specific criteria relating to each of the Company’s sale channels have been met, as described below.
Port Dues revenue arises from charges to port users and comprises of goods dues, vessel dues and other key services provided such as towage and pilotage. Goods Dues are charged by reference to a schedule of charges based on Standard International Trade Classifications. Vessel Dues are charged in respect of the arrival of a vessel and rates are based and chargeable on the greater of the net tonnage or half the gross tonnage of a vessel. Towage and Pilotage Services are charged based on usage.
Port Dues revenue is recognised by reference to the date of arrival of the vessel in the Port.
Rental income arises mainly from port related rental properties and is recognised by reference to the period to which the rent relates. Rent is charged in accordance with the terms of the rental agreement.
Other revenue included in Turnover comprises Licence Fees and income from the Company’s integrated Service Station and Truck Park. Revenue is recognised by reference to the period to which the income relates.
The Company also earns interest income and grant income. Each of these revenue streams are accounted for as set out below:
Interest income is recognised using the effective interest rate method. Interest income is presented as ‘interest receivable’ in the Profit and Loss account.
The Company applies the accruals model in the recognition of grant income.
Grants relating to revenue are recognised on a systematic basis over the periods in which the Company recognises the related costs for which the grant is intended to compensate. A grant that becomes receivable as compensation for expenses already incurred with no future related costs is recognised in income in the period in which it becomes receivable.
Grants relating to assets are recognised in income on a systematic basis over the expected useful life of the asset. Where part of a grant relating to an asset is deferred it is recognised as deferred income and not deducted from the carrying amount of the asset.
Grants are not recognised until there is reasonable certainty that:
(a) the Company will comply with the conditions attaching to them; and
(b) the grants will be received.
Where a grant becomes repayable it is recognised as a liability when the repayment meets the definition of a liability.
Tangible fixed assets
Tangible fixed assets are stated at cost at the date of transition to FRS 102, less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, except for the Company’s investment property which is stated at fair value. Please refer to separate policy on investment property below.
Cost includes the original purchase price, costs directly attributable to bringing the asset to its working location and condition for its intended use, dismantling and restoration costs and borrowing costs capitalised.
Infrastructure assets are those assets characterised by having virtually infinite useful lives and which, in general, were constructed many years ago but are unlikely to be constructed in their existing format today. They include assets such as the North Bull Wall and Great South Wall. Infrastructure assets are carried at a nil valuation and the cost of their upkeep is charged to the Profit and Loss Account.
(ii) Depreciation and residual values
Depreciation on assets is calculated, using the straight-line method, to allocate the cost to their residual values over the estimated useful lives as follows:
Buildings, quays, roads and terminals
Dock structures, dry docks and quays
30 - 50 years
up to 30 years
up to 30 years
Plant and machinery
2 - 30 years
The assets’ residual values and useful lives are reviewed, and adjusted, if appropriate, at the end of each reporting period. The effect of any change is accounted for prospectively.
(iii) Subsequent additions and major components
Subsequent costs, including major inspections, are included in the asset’s carrying amount or recognised as a separate asset, as appropriate, only when it is probable that economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the Company and the cost can be measured reliably.
The carrying amount of any replaced component is derecognised. Major components are treated as a separate asset where they have significantly different patterns of consumption of economic benefits and are depreciated separately over its useful life.
Repairs, maintenance and minor inspection costs are expensed as incurred.
(iv) Assets in the course of construction
Assets in the course of construction are carried at cost. These assets are not depreciated until they are available for use.
Tangible assets are derecognised on disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected. On disposal, the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount is recognised in profit or loss and included in “Profit on disposal of assets”.
Capital dredging, which enhances Port access or infrastructure, is capitalised as part of the related fixed asset and depreciated over its estimated useful life.
The Company measures investment property at its cost on initial recognition. The cost of a purchased investment property comprises its purchase price and any directly attributable costs, such as professional fees for legal services, property transfer taxes and other transaction costs. Costs incurred in undertaking market studies before the purchase of a property are expensed as incurred.
Investment properties whose fair value can be measured reliably without undue cost or effort are measured at fair value at each reporting date with changes in fair value recognised in profit or loss.
The Company engaged independent valuation specialists to determine fair value of investment properties at 31 December 2017. The key assumptions used to determine the fair value of investment property are further explained in note 11.
Although the Companies Act would normally require the systematic annual depreciation of fixed assets, the Directors believe that the policy of not providing depreciation is necessary in order for the financial statements to give a true and fair view, since the current value of the investment property, and changes to its value, are of prime importance rather than a calculation of systematic annual depreciation. Depreciation is only one of the many factors reflected in the annual valuation, and the amount, which might otherwise have been included, cannot be separately identified or quantified.
Computer software is carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses. Software is amortised over its estimated useful life, of 10 years, on a straight-line basis. Software is not considered to have a residual value. Where factors, such as technological advancement or changes in market prices, indicate that the software’s useful life has changed, the useful life is amended prospectively to reflect the new circumstances. Intangible fixed assets are reviewed for impairment if there is an indication that the intangible fixed asset may be impaired.
Impairment of non-financial assets
At each Balance Sheet date non-financial assets not carried at fair value are assessed to determine whether there is an indication that the asset (or asset’s cash generating unit) may be impaired. If there is such an indication the recoverable amount of the asset (or asset’s cash generating unit) is estimated.
The recoverable amount of the asset (or asset’s cash generating unit) is the higher of the fair value less costs to sell and value in use. Value in use is the present value of the future cash flows expected to be derived from continuing use of the asset (or cash-generating unit) and from its ultimate disposal. In measuring value in use pre-tax and interest cash flows are discounted using a pre-tax discount rate that represents the current risk-free market rate and the risks specific to the asset for which the future cash flow estimates have not been adjusted.
If the recoverable amount of the asset (or asset’s cash generating unit) is estimated to be lower than the carrying amount, the carrying amount is reduced to its recoverable amount. An impairment loss is recognised in the Profit and Loss account, unless the asset has been re-valued when the amount is recognised in other Comprehensive Income to the extent of any previously recognised revaluation. Thereafter any excess is recognised in profit or loss.
If an impairment loss subsequently reverses, the carrying amount of the asset (or asset’s cash generating unit) is increased to the revised estimate of its recoverable amount, but only to the extent that the revised carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined (net of depreciation) had no impairment loss been recognised in prior periods. A reversal of an impairment loss is recognised in the Profit and Loss account, unless the asset is carried at a revalued amount.
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents includes cash in hand, deposits held at call with banks and other short term highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less. Bank deposits which have original maturity dates of more than three months are not cash and cash equivalents and are presented as current asset investments.
Restricted Cash comprises cash held in escrow which is ring-fenced for specific financing arrangements, and to which we do not have access.
Inventories are stated at cost. Inventories are consumable items and are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are used.
Cost includes cost of purchase, and where appropriate, import duties and transportation costs.
At the end of each reporting period, inventories are assessed for impairment. If an item of inventory is impaired, the identified inventory is reduced to its recoverable amount and an impairment charge is recognised in the Profit and Loss account. Where a reversal of the impairment is recognised the impairment charge is reversed, up to the original impairment loss, and is recognised as a credit in the Profit and Loss account.
i) Functional and presentation currency
The Company’s functional and presentation currency is the euro, denominated by the symbol “€” and unless otherwise stated, the financial statements have been presented in thousands (‘000).
ii) Transactions and balances
Foreign currency transactions are translated into the functional currency using the spot exchange rates at the dates of the transactions.
At each period end foreign currency monetary items are translated to Euro using the closing rate. Non-monetary items measured at historical cost are translated using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction and non-monetary items measured at fair value are measured using the exchange rate when fair value was determined.
Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the settlement of transactions and from the translation at period-end exchange rates of monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are recognised in the Profit and Loss account.
Foreign exchange gains and losses that relate to borrowings and cash and cash equivalents are presented in the Profit and Loss account within ‘interest payable/receivable’. All other foreign exchange gains and losses are presented in the Profit and Loss account within ‘administration expenses’.
The Company provides a range of benefits to employees, including short term employee benefits such as paid holiday arrangements and post-employment benefits such as defined benefit and defined contribution pension plans and annual bonus arrangements, for certain employees.
(i) Short term benefits
Short term benefits, including wages and salaries, holiday pay and other similar non-monetary benefits, are recognised as an expense in the period in which the service is received.
The Company operates an annual bonus plan for certain employees. An expense is recognised in the Profit and Loss account when the Company has a present legal or constructive obligation to make payments under the plan as a result of past events and a reliable estimate of the obligation can be made.
ii) Post-employment benefits
Defined contribution plan
The Company operates a defined contribution plan for its employees. A defined contribution plan is a pension plan under which the Company pays fixed contributions into a separate entity. Once the contributions have been paid the Company has no further payment obligations. The contributions are recognised as an expense when they are due. Amounts not paid are shown in accruals in the Balance Sheet. The assets of the plan are held separately from the Company in independently administered funds.
Defined benefit pension plan
The Company operates a defined benefit plan for certain employees. A defined benefit plan defines the pension benefit that the employee will receive on retirement, usually dependent upon several factors including age, length of service and remuneration. A defined benefit plan is a pension plan that is not a defined contribution plan. The liability recognised in the Balance Sheet in respect of the defined benefit plan is the present value of the defined benefit obligation at the end of the reporting date less the fair value of the plan assets at the reporting date.
The defined benefit obligation is calculated using the projected unit credit method. Annually the Company engages independent actuaries to calculate the obligation. The present value is determined by discounting the estimated future payments using market yields on high quality corporate bonds that are denominated in Euro and that have terms approximating the estimated period of the future payments.
The fair value of plan assets is measured in accordance with the FRS 102 fair value hierarchy and in accordance with the Company’s policy for similarly held assets. For
most plan assets this is the quoted price in an active market. Where quoted prices are not available appropriate valuation techniques are used to estimate the fair value.
The cost of the defined benefit plan, recognised in profit or loss as employee costs, except where included in the cost of an asset, comprises:
(a) the increase in pension benefit liability arising from employee service during the period; and
(b) the cost of plan introductions, benefit changes, curtailments and settlements.
The net interest cost is calculated by applying the discount rate to the net balance of the defined benefit obligation and the fair value of plan assets. This cost is recognised in profit or loss as ‘other finance cost’.
Actuarial gains and losses arising from experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are charged or credited to Other Comprehensive Income. These amounts together with the return on plan assets, less amounts included in net interest, are presented as ‘re-measurement of net defined benefit liability’ in Other Comprehensive Income.
Taxation expense for the period comprises current and deferred tax recognised in the reporting period. Tax is recognised in the Profit and Loss account, except to the extent that it relates to items recognised in other Comprehensive Income or directly in equity. In this case tax is also recognised in other Comprehensive Income or directly in equity respectively.
Current or deferred taxation assets and liabilities are not discounted.
(i) Current tax
Current tax is the amount of income tax payable in respect of the taxable profit for the year or prior years. Tax is calculated on the basis of tax rates and laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the period end. Management periodically evaluates positions taken in tax returns with respect to situations in which applicable tax regulation is subject to interpretation. It establishes provisions where appropriate on the basis of amounts expected to be paid to the tax authorities.
(ii) Deferred tax
Deferred tax arises from timing differences that are differences between taxable profits and total Comprehensive Income as stated in the financial statements. These timing differences arise from the inclusion of income and expenses in tax assessments in periods different from those in which they are recognised in financial statements.
Deferred tax is recognised on all timing differences at the reporting date except for certain exceptions. Unrelieved tax losses and other deferred tax assets are only recognised when it is probable that they will be recovered against the reversal of deferred tax liabilities or other future taxable profits.
Deferred tax is measured using tax rates and laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the period end and that are expected to apply to the reversal of the timing difference.
The Company’s income statement separately identifies exceptional items. Exceptional items are those that in our judgement need to be disclosed separately by virtue of their size, nature or incidence. The Company believes that this presentation provides additional analysis as it highlights exceptional items. Such items include gains on disposal of assets and business restructuring costs to the extent they are significant.
In this regard the determination of ‘exceptional items’ as included in our definition uses qualitative and quantitative factors. Judgement is used by the Company in assessing the particular items, which by virtue of their size, nature and incidence, are disclosed in the Company income statement and related notes as exceptional items.
Certain immaterial prior year amounts have been reclassified to align with the current period presentation of those items.
The Company has chosen to adopt the Sections 11 and 12 of FRS 102 in respect of financial instruments.
(i) Financial assets
Basic financial assets, including trade and other receivables, cash and bank balances and short term deposits, are initially recognised at transaction price, unless the arrangement constitutes a financing transaction, where the transaction is measured at the present value of the future receipts discounted at a market rate of interest for a similar debt instrument.
Such assets are subsequently carried at amortised cost using the effective interest method.
At the end of each reporting period financial assets measured at amortised cost are assessed for objective evidence of impairment. If an asset is impaired the impairment loss is the difference between the carrying amount and the present value of the estimated cash flows discounted at the asset’s original effective interest rate. The impairment loss is recognised in profit or loss.
If, in a subsequent financial year, the amount of an impairment loss decreases and the decrease can be objectively related to an event occurring after the impairment was recognised the previously recognised impairment loss is reversed. The reversal is such that the current carrying amount does not exceed what the carrying amount would have been had the impairment not previously been recognised. The impairment reversal is recognised in profit or loss.
Financial assets are derecognised when (a) the contractual rights to the cash flows from the asset expire or are settled, or (b) substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset are transferred to another party or (c) control of the financial asset has been transferred to another party who has the practical ability to unilaterally sell the financial asset to an unrelated third party without imposing additional restrictions.
(ii) Financial liabilities
Basic financial liabilities, including trade and other payables and bank loans are initially recognised at transaction price, unless the arrangement constitutes a financing transaction, where the debt instrument is measured at the present value of the future payments discounted at a market rate of interest for a similar debt instrument.
These liabilities are subsequently carried at amortised cost, using the effective interest rate method.
Fees paid on the establishment of loan facilities are recognised as transaction costs of the loan to the extent that it is probable that some or all of the facility will be drawn down. In this case, the fee is deferred until the draw-down occurs. Transactions costs and fees are amortised over the life of the loan.
Trade payables are obligations to pay for goods or services that have been acquired in the ordinary course of business from suppliers. Accounts payable are classified as current liabilities if payment is due within one year or less. If not, they are presented as non-current liabilities. Trade payables are recognised initially at transaction price and subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method.
Financial liabilities are derecognised when the liability is extinguished, that is when the contractual obligation is discharged, cancelled or expires.
Derivatives, including interest rate swaps and forward foreign exchange contracts, are not basic financial instruments.
Derivatives are initially recognised at fair value on the date a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently re-measured at their fair value. Changes in the fair value of derivatives are recognised in profit or loss in finance costs or income as appropriate. The Company does not currently apply hedge accounting for interest rate or foreign exchange derivatives.
Financial assets and liabilities are offset and the net amounts presented in the financial statements when there is an enforceable right to set off the recognised amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis or to realise the asset and settle to liability simultaneously.
Provisions and contingencies
Provisions are liabilities of uncertain timing or amount.
Provisions are recognised when the Company has a present legal or constructive obligation as a result of past events, it is probable that a transfer of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and the amount of the obligation can be estimated reliably.
Provisions are measured at the present value of the best estimate of the amount required to settle the obligation using a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the liability. Provisions are reviewed at the end of each financial year and adjusted to reflect the current best estimate of the amount required to settle the obligation. The unwinding of the discount is recognised as a finance cost in profit or loss, presented as part of ‘interest payable and similar charges’ in the financial year in which it arises.
Where there are a number of similar obligations, the likelihood that an outflow will be required in settlement is determined by considering the class of obligations as a whole.
Contingent liabilities, arising as a result of past events, are not recognised as a liability because it is not probable that the company will be required to transfer economic benefits in settlement of the obligation or the amount cannot be reliably measured at the end of the financial year. Possible but uncertain obligations are not recognised as liabilities but are contingent liabilities. Contingent liabilities are disclosed in the financial statements unless the probability of an outflow of resources is remote.
Contingent assets are not recognised. Contingent assets are disclosed in the financial statements when an inflow of economic benefits is probable.
Distributions to equity holders
Dividends and other distributions to Company’s shareholders are recognised as a liability in the financial statements in the period in which the dividends and other distributions are approved by the Company’s shareholders. These amounts are recognised in the statement of changes in equity. Interim dividends are recognised when paid.
Ordinary shares are classified as equity and are recognised at the proceeds received. Incremental costs directly attributable to the issue of new ordinary shares or options are shown in equity as a deduction, net of tax, from the proceeds.